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Education System in Pakistan: problems, challenges and their solution

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By Mahrukh Naeem

Only over 58 percent of adults in Pakistan can read and write, making it one of the illiterate countries in the world. With an estimated 22.6 million children not attending school and a literacy rate of just 58 percent, Pakistan has one of the lowest literacy rates in the world. For underprivileged children, the issue is substantially worse because they have a lot of trouble getting to school. This article examines the barriers to education faced by underprivileged children in Pakistan as well as potential solutions. Pakistan faces many challenges in providing top-notch education to its people, particularly to the underprivileged kids.

With only about 58 percent of adults being literate, Pakistan has one of the lowest literacy rates in the world, according to the World Bank. Furthermore, many kids, especially those from low-income households, are unable to go to school owing to poverty, a lack of resources, and social issues. Another significant issue is gender disparity. Due to their much lower enrollment rates and higher dropout rates than males, girls in Pakistan are particularly disadvantaged. A number of factors, including as early marriage and childbearing, cultural norms that prioritise boys’ education over girls’ education, and a dearth of secure and safe schools cause this for girls. As a result, only 44% of primary school students are female, creating a significant gender gap in education.

In addition to this, a lack of enough resources is one of the biggest problems facing Pakistan’s education sector. With only 2.8 percent of GDP set aside for education in 2022, the nation has one of the lowest per-capita education spending levels in the world, according to UNICEF. Poor infrastructure, outdated curricula, and insufficient teacher training are the results of a lack of funding.

Essential facilities like clean water for drinking, power, and adequate sanitation are lacking in many rural schools. Due to a shortage of facilities and resources in schools, teachers struggle to give their students a high-quality education. The lack of resources and facilities in schools makes it challenging for teachers to give their students a high-quality education.

Despite these limitations, Pakistan has the ability to improve education. The growing use of technology in education is one of the biggest prospects. E-learning has arisen as a viable option for students who are unable to attend school due to financial or social restraints as a result of the spread use of internet connectivity and mobile devices.

Additionally, the use of technology can contribute to higher educational quality by providing access to up-to-date information and engaging learning resources. Additionally, it may be possible to enhance the growth and training of teachers. The amount of unskilled or undertrained teachers in Pakistan has an effect on the standard of instruction. Pakistan may raise educational standards and student achievement by funding programmes that train teachers and giving teachers more incentives.

The growing number of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) working in Pakistan to improve education is another option. Building high-quality schools in underserved areas, providing scholarships to children from low-income families, and enhancing teacher preparation and support are all goals of NGOs like The Citizens Foundation and the Zindagi Trust as well as independently developed programmes like Street to School.

Finally, there is an opportunity to spread knowledge about and argue in favour of the value of education for all Pakistani children. In promoting education and fighting for underprivileged children’s right to a quality education, parents, teachers, and community leaders may all play a significant role.

The National Education Policy 2021 is just one of the initiatives the Pakistani government has started in an effort to improve the nation’s educational system. This plan makes an effort to deal with the problems the Pakistani educational system is currently facing and provides a framework for raising the standard of instruction for all pupils, especially the less advantaged ones.

The writer is the student of department of journalism 8 semester Institute of communication studies in Punjab University Lahore. She can be reached at [email protected]



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